Monday, 28 February 2011


11.       Potential for Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L) Seed Production in Nepal
Rameshwar Singh Pande

(Published in: Pande, RS, 1995. Potential for Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L) Seed Production in Nepal. Proceedings Workshop on Stylo and Berseem Seed Production and Marketing in Nepal May 30-31, 1995, Dairy Enterprises Support Component/ATSP, Chemonics International Consulting Division,USA and DOAD, Division of Livestock Services, Nepal )

INTRODUCTION
            Nepalese farmers lack traditional knowledge on forage cultivation for livestock feeding. Traditionally, livestock are reared on agricultural by-products, grazing on forest and fallow croplands. Since, the population of human beings as well as livestock has been increased significantly, the adversely affected on survival of the vegetation and environment conservation. Deficit of livestock feed has reached at crucial stage. The consciences of feed deficit resulted in poor performance of animal in terms of productivity per animal and maintenance of health conditions.
            On the other hand, demand of milk, meat and other livestock products has been increasing. Due to high demand of animal products farmers are more attracted to rear high yielding dairy breeds instead of low producing native animals especially around the urban areas. Traditional scavenging system has slowly been replaced with the stall feeding system especially in Terai and Hills. Farmer’s awareness towards forage cultivation on private land as well as to improve the native pasturelands for more fodder production has significantly increased (Pande, Shrestha and Pradhan, 1994).
            Since 1970, different activities on fodder and pasture development has been carried out. As a consequence, many potential forage species are being introduced and cultivated in different agro-climatic conditions. Forage cultivation has increased from 36 ha during 1980 to over 1000 ha in 1990 (Pande, 1994). One of the introduced species is berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) grown as a winter forage in Terai and Hills. A few decades ago, most of the required seed had to be imported from overseas countries such as Australia, New Zealand, India and Bhutan. The scenario has been changing. Pasture and fodder seed production has started under government as well as former’s level.
            Due to diverse climatic conditions there is a wide scope to grow varieties of forage seed in Nepal. It has been indicated that there is an enthusiastic response of farmers to forage seed production. Under the livestock development programme some achievement has been made in fodder seed production especially on oat, berseem, stylo and molasses. Within a short span of time, Nepal is heading towards self-sufficiency on sub-tropical seed production. However, there is a lack of organised effort to promote seed production, processing, quality control and marketing of forage seeds.

2.         HISTORICAL BACKROUND OF BERSEEM CULTIVATION:
            In traditional system, forage species has never been regarded as a crop. Only the naturally grown weeds and grasses are considered potential source of livestock feed. A system approach on pasture and fodder development was started after the study carried out by FAO in 1952 for the development of livestock and dairying especially to fulfill the increasing demand of milk and milk products in Nepal. In between 1960- 1970, different farms for the development of livestock were established at various ecological zones such as Pokhara, Chitlang, Jiri, Jumla, Panchasaykhola etc. Feeds and forage development program was also carried out as a part of farm’s activities.
            To meet the growing demand of livestock products especially of the Kathmandu valley, in around 1980, Livestock Development Project (First and Second) under ADB loan was initiated from 1980- to date: 1995. Under this project a wide range of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate pasture and forage species were introduced and tested in Nepal (Pande, 1994). The major achievement of the Livestock Development Project is to popularize the tropical fodder species such as Berseem, oat, Stylo, Kudzu, Desmodium etc. in the Terai and Hills of Nepal.
            Now, berseem has been growing almost throughout the Terai region from Jhapa district in the east to Kanchanpur in the west though in a relatively small area (Appendix-1). A reasonable quantity of seeds is also produced to meet the internal requirements.

3. INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN BERSEEM DEVELOPMENT:
            The sole institution for the development of berseem crop in Nepal is the Department of Agriculture Department, Livestock Development Division in Nepal. Science, FY 1990/91 DOAD, Livestock Development Division has established a full-fledged Pasture and Animal Nutrition Development Program for the promotion of feeds and fodder development in the country. The main activities of the DOAD, Livestock Development Division is extension and development oriented i.e. promote forage cultivation (fodder/seed production) including berseem crops, rangeland development and animal nutrition. Studies and trials were conducted in DOAD’s farms such as Janakpur and Pokhara.
            In addition to DOAD, Livestock Development Division, at present, eight Government Farms are involved in fodder and pasture seed production (Appendix-2). Out of the total farms only two farms such as Pasture Trial and Seed Multiplication Farm, Janakpur and Livestock Development Farm, Gaughat are involved in berseem seed production. The annual production of seed in these farms is about 2000 and 100 kgs respectively (Appendix-2).

4.         AGRONOMY AND INTRODUCED CULTIVARS OF BERSEEM:
4.1       AGRONOMY PRACTICES:
            Berseem is an annual fodder crop, very succulent, palatable and nutritious, grows during winter season. It is a meditation crop adapted to tropical to sub-tropical climate. In Nepal it is grown from plain area around 100 m up to the altitude to 1400 m also. It prefers well fertile soil which has good water retention capacity. It is a multipurpose crop. Berseem can be used for green manuring, soil reclamation and crop rotations.  Berseem has ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen to the soil. It fixes about 65 kg N/ha. Berseem requires dry and cool climate. If grown for seed production, it requires high temperature especially at the time of seed maturity. It does not tolerate frost. Frost excludes seed formation. The usual seed rate is 20-25 kg/ha for fodder production and 30-35 kg/ha for seed production. The usual fodder production is up to 100 mt/ha of green matter under well managed condition. Seed production decreases with the increase in number of cutting of fodder. The best method of sowing is line sowing.
            Berseem is being grown especially for seed production at Pasture Trial and Seed Multiplication Farm, Janakpur in about 12 ha of land (PTSMF, 2047/48). Berseem is growing during the ‘rabi’ season i.e. from October to April. During this period wheat is also grown. As farmers have to sacrifice the ‘rabi’ season crop like (wheat) competition of berseem wit wheat is the main limitation towards the expansion of berseem cultivation in Nepal.

4.2       INTRODUCED CULTIVARS AND THEIR PERFORMANCE 
            Berseem is believed to be introduced from India by the rich farmers of Janakpur in around 1958. Until 1980, berseem could not get enough attention either by the private farmers or by the government agencies. Mainly, because it was competing with wheat crop and demands well fertile irrigated land for its cultivation.
            After the implementation of Livestock Development Project, various studies and extension activities were carried to popularize berseem cultivation in Nepal. Over ten cultivars of berseem have been introduced in Nepal. The cultivars were tested mostly in Janakpur (Table-1)

Table -1. Name of the Cultivar Introduced and tested in Nepal
SN
Cultivars
Origin
1
Giza-6
United Arab Emirates
2
Giza-10
UAE
3
Giza-15
UAE
4
Sakha-3
UAE
5
Synthetic Variety-79
UAE
6
Mescavy
Australia
7
Wardana
India
8
UPB-103
India
9
BL-22
India
10
Local genotype
India

            The most popularly grown variety of berseem is Mescavy under farmer’s field conditions.
 In Janakpur condition, both fodder and seed production was found quite well. \\\For example, cultivar Muscovy yielded 134 tm of green fodder and seed yield was 240 to 783 kg/ha depending on the methods of sowing and fertiliser level (Khati, 1989).
            Berseem is getting quite popular to grow as a relay cropping with paddy. Such a relay cropping not only provides opportunities for better land use also improve fertility status of soil. For example, the farmers reported that the grain yield from paddy increase after the berseem cultivation compared to the non-berseem cultivated field at Janakpur.

5.         RESEARCH/STUDIES ON BERSEEM IN NEPAL
            Studies and trial on berseem crop has been conducted at Pasture and Seed Multiplication Farm, Janakpur and also in other farm such as Livestock Development farm, Pokhara, Livestock Development Farm Gaughat and Agriculture Research Station, Tarahara. Other agency involved in the study of berseem is Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankutta. The available research/ studies are compiled, reviewed and discussed in the following headings:

5.1       Different methods of cultivation of berseem have been studied such as:
            a)         Broadcasting on the tilth land,
            b)         Line sowing in the cultivated land, and
            c)         Relay cropping with rice (broadcasting of berseem seed on standing      paddy crop without cultivation of land).
            Comparison of different methods of cultivation were made at Janakpur Farm conditions during FY 2045/46, in which line sowing gave higher yield but the difference was not significant. The fodder yield was 134, 110 and 107 mt/ha and the seed yield was 414, 370 and 240 kg/ha respectively in the above treatments. The seed rate in all cases was 21 kg/ha and the fertiliser dose was N:P:K= 90:60:0 kg/ha.
            Berseem cultivation as a relay cropping with rice is quite popular. In this method, berseem seeds are sown into the standing paddy prior 2-3 weeks of harvesting of the grain. In other areas mainly in upland (Bari) berseem are sown in prepared seed bed.

5.2 RESPONSE TO FERTILIZER
            As a leguminous cop berseem does not require high does of nitrogen fertilizer for normal production. However, for better production a normal dose of phosphetic fertilizer are recommended. The usual practices of fertlization are the application of 15-20 kg of N and 60 kg Phosphorus for better fodder and seed production. Various researchers have studied the response to fertilizer on fodder and seed yield of berseem (e.g. Khatri, 1989) and Pradhan and Silwal (1989) at Janakpur and Pokhara conditions respectively.

5.3 RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION
            Berseem required a good amount of irrigation for better growth and seed production. Water should be applied in a regular interval in the field. No systematic study has been conducted to determine the exact amount of water for irrigation for berseem production. In normal Nepalese conditions, 12-15 irrigation may be required for the entire crop duration. Irrigation should be given at 15-20 days intervals. It was reported that seed production could not be obtained in Nepalgunj without irrigation (LDP, 1986). In usual conditions of Janakpur, it was reported that after each cut of fodder, irrigation is essential for normal growth.

5.4 USE OF INNOCULUM:
            Berseem required inoculation with trifolii rhizobium especially when berseem is sown first time in the field. If inoculums is not available, soil from the previously berseem sown field could be mixed with seed which contains rhizobia and works as an inoculums.
            Inoculums production Division Khumaltar has been producing 200 packets (200 gm) of Rhizobium Trifolii. A rhizobium laboratory has been established at Janakpur and is expected to start working from the FY 1995/96.

5.5 SEED PRODUCTION OF BERSEEM
            Berseem is high seed yielder. The seed multiplication ration is about 25-30 times compared to other forage species. In Nepalese conditions, seed production ranges from 240-783 kg/ha under different dose of fertilizers and irrigation regimes. In the farmers condition it was observed that the usual seed production is about 100-120 kg/ha after taking 2-3 cuts of green fodder.
            Berseem is sown during October n Terai and Hills, late sowing during November yielded low at the Koshi hills (PAC Annual Report, 1990/91).


5.6       AFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON FODDER YIELD
            Berseem can be grown in the Terai and foot hills of Nepal. The potential areas for berseem cultivation in Terai regions are from east to west along the Indian boarder.
In Nepalese conditions, berseem could be grown up to 1400 masl. Study conducted at PAC during 1991, at the eastern hills of Koshi zone at the altitude 1010 to 1650 m revealed that the green fodder yield was affected by altitude. At lower altitude below 1400 m fodder yield was 11.7 mt/ha from the Mescavy cultivar. The average plant height was 17.7 cm at higher altitude whereas at lower altitude the average plant height was 45.o cm.
            Altitude does not only effect on fodder yield but also on seed production. The best growth of berseem has been obtained in the Terai at an altitude of 600 m als under the Nepali conditions.

 6.        ACTIVITIES TO PROMOTE BERSEEM SEED PRODUCTION/MARKETING
            Berseem could contribute significantly to supply the quality green fodder especially to high yielding dairy stock. It is a major alternative to high cost concentrate feed for reducing the cost of production, thus t increase the profitability of the dairy farmers.
            Government agencies mainly DOAD, Livestock Development Division has been promoting berseem cultivation through the distribution of minikit packets, demonstration of improved cultivation practices, training on seed production/processing etc. and observation tours to the farmers. Under Government sector a resource centre for berseem seed has been established at Janakpur. The Pasture Trial and Seed Multiplication Farm Janakpur is growing berseem on over 12 ha of lands. The farm is producing 1500-2000 kg seed each year mainly for distribution to the farmers.
            The involvements of the private organisation for the production/marketing of forage seed are lacking in Nepal. The semi- government organisation e.g.  Agriculture Input Corporation only deals with food crops. Similarly, a private sector seed Entrepreneur’s Association of Nepal deals mainly with vegetable seeds.
            Two private seed dealers viz. a) Visal Seed Suppliers, and, b) Sidharth Seed Store located in Bhairahaw are mainly importing different kinds of forage seed from India according to the requirements of the buyers. A full-fledged forage dealer is lacking in Nepal.

6.1       SEED PRODUCTION THROUGH REGISTERED GROWERS
            To promote the quality forage seed at private level, Government Fars/District Officers have initiated a programme called seed production through Registered Seed Growers. Under this system the potential farmers who are keen to grow quality seed used to be selected by the concerned farms. An agreement between the farmers and the government agencies will be signed regarding the species/cultivar, quality of seed, amount to be produced, the price and the distribution mechanism. The foundation seeds and the technologies are provided by the farm. So far, about 7 individual farmers have been selected as registered seed growers of berseem seed (Table-2).
Table-2 Registered Berseem Seed Producers in Nepal
SN
name of farmers
Address
Area under Berseem, ha
1
Mr Bhola nath Jha
Janakpur dham-4, Janakpur
1.0
2
Mr Raghu Thakur
Jaleshwar-10, Mahotatri
1.0
3
Mr Kedar Tiwari,
Kailaya-4, Bara
1.0
4
Mr Khabari Sah
Gamariya-3, Parsa
1.0
5
Mr Ganga Kadiyat
Judibelha-3 Rautahat
1.0
6
Mr Ram Yodhya Ray
Gamhariya, Sarlahi
0.5
7
Mr Lakshman Rajbhandary
Chandra Nagar, Sarlahi
0.5

Total

6.0

            Many farmers are interested to grow berseem seed under this scheme. The main problem is the assurance of marketing of seeds. The farmers are compelled to limit on the agreed amount of seed to be produced. Though, the berseem seed is a high value crop and fetch about Rs 69/ha (US$ 1.25/kg). however, if the seed could not be sold in the forthcoming season, it become worthless, neither it can be consume nor it can be fed to the livestock/poultry nor used for other purposes except making compost. In this regard, during FY 1983/84 a huge quantity of berseem seed had been produced by the farmers have to be dump and got wasted.

6.2       RURAL FORAGE SEED BANKS
            Besides the registration of the seed growers, to promote the forage seed production at farmer’s level Forage Seed Bank programme has been initiated by DOAD Livestock Development Division. Under this programme, interested farmers/group of farmers involved in forage production forma group comprising 7-9 members. The seed producers groups are technically supervised and assisted by the respective District Agriculture Office (Livestock Section). The seed producers groups have to contribute nominal amount to create a revolving fund for the promotion of seed production and marketing. If the group member deposited NRs 3000 (US $ 60.0) in the Rural Seed Bank Fund, the respective ADO has to contribute an equal amount to the fund. Besides, the technical support and monitoring assistance to the Rural Seed Bank, the DOAD, LDD has been providing various supportive activities to the group members such as facilitation for marketing of seed, training to the group members, recommendations for agricultural loan, animal health facilities etc. However, organized efforts for marketing of berseem seed are lacking. So far the production and distribution of berseem seed has been carried out either through the concerned farms itself or through the farmers themselves.
            It was observed that these are a big gap between the producers and the buyers. Either the respective Agriculture Office/ farms are not informed about the exact quantity of seed produced or the potential buyers are unaware of the availability of forage seeds.
            Recently, to promote berseem seed production and marketing at private level an NGO called Mahotari Grass Development Association has been formulated under the initiation of DOAD, LDD and Janakpur farm.

7.         Estimated Production of Berseem Seeds
            Now berseem is no more a new crop to the farmers, they are well aware and acquainted with berseem cultivation and seed production.  At present, berseem seed are produced in different 11 districts. Over 7 mt of berseem seed are being produced annually (Table-3). Most of the seed produced by the farmers are consumed domestically. Only the surplus seed are sold to other and the Government farms are distributing minikit seeds to the farmers under the regular programme of various Agriculture Development Offices.

Table -3. Berseem Seed Production at Government Farms and Farmers Level
SN
Farms/Districts
Seed Production, kg
%
A
Government Sector


1
PTSM farm, Janakpur
1500
19.4
2
LFTSM farm, Ranjitpur
1000
13.0

Sub-total
2500
32.4
B
Private sector


1
Dhanusha districts
1000
13.0
2
Mahotatri
1000
13.0
3
Sarlahi
500
6.5
4
Rautahat
500
6.5
5
Bara
10
0.1
6
Parsa
10
0.1
7
Banke
500
6.5
8
Dang
1000
13.0
9
Surkhet
700
9.1

Sub-total
5220
67.6

Grand Total
7720
100

            Out of the total berseem seed production on 7720 kgs, approximately 68 percent (5220 kg) of seed is grown by the private sector and only 32 percent (2500 kg) at government farms (Table-3).

8.         Future Prospects for berseem seed production
            It seems that there is a tremendous potentiality to produce berseem seed production in Nepal. Berseem could be grown successfully in 24 districts of Nepal along the southern Indian boarder. However, from agro-climatic point of view only the specific localities of Dhanusha, Mahotatri, Sarlahi, Rautahat and Banke have been found suitable for seed production.
A list of potential districts and the land use pattern is given in Table-4.
Table-4            Potential Districts and area for berseem cultivation and seed production in Nepal
SN
District
Total land, ha
Ag Land, ha
Area under paddy, ha
Area under wheat, ha
Difference paddy-wheat, ha
1
Dhanusha
121746
83181
51160
19100
32060
2
Mahotatri
98745
69324
45550
16280
29270
3
Rautahat
103709
64598
52280
18530
33750
4
Sarlahi
126327
58976
48660
14310
34350
5
Banke
235983
58976
23540
8780
14760

Sub-total
686510
360816
221190
77000
144190
6
Bara
129564
69963
58390
22170
36320
7
Chitwan
219454
55279
30500
6930
23570
8
Dhading
192387
73345
13500
4800
8700
9
Makawanpur
239076
59657
12950
5710
7240
10
Parsa
138943
54732
45650
16550
29100
11
Sindhuli
247709
58846
10930
4290
6640
12
Jhapa
156891
123574
88710
8810
80600
13
Morang
184680
120599
80180
13400
66780
14
Saptari
135929
86385
85640
11480
74160
15
Siraha
122797
88355
65780
13000
52780
16
Sunsari
127076
81944
51600
11870
39730
17
Udaypur
203169
52393
11700
1100
10600
18
Bardiya
203553
61936
27370
14680
12590
19
Dang
297339
80912
36550
17500
19050
20
Surkhet
249016
52201
9020
16000
-6980
21
Rupandehi
141351
97509
63500
17500
46000
22
Kapilvastu
175694
93855
65240
15870
49370
23
Kailali
324791
80780
50500
17100
33400
24
Kanchanpur
163678
47371
43500
12100
31400
Total

4339707
1800848
1072400
307160
765140

The above 24 berseem production districts could be divided into two groups:
a)         Potential districts for seed and fodder production, and
b)         Potential districts for fodder production only.
            In the seed producing districts, there are a total of 686510 ha of land of which about 52 percent is cultivable. About 61 per cent of the total cultivable land is under paddy crop. The land which is under paddy crop could be used successfully for berseem cultivation in the seed producing districts. However, most of the land after paddy crop is left fallow until the next paddy season. On the other hand, a total of 77000 ha i.e. 21.3 percent of the total agricultural land including paddy fields are brought under wheat cultivation. The rest 10-20 percent of the cultivable land is (assumed) brought under other rabi season crops such as barley, mustard, lytharus, sugarcane etc. The remaining about 50-60 percent of the agricultural land could be used for berseem seed production which is about 0.2 million ha in the berseem seed producing districts.
            Under well managed system, about 0.2 m ha of land could easily produce 40 thousand Mt of berseem seed. In other words, there is a vast potentiality of berseem seed production in Nepal.
The suitable area for berseem seed production:
Latitude                        10 and 23 N or S
Frost                            Excludes seed formation
Mean daily Temp.         < 17° C during coolest months
Average rainfall Rainfall> 300-400 mm

If we consider the different locations of the Terai regions for berseem seed production, the most suitable site seems the central Terai region between Dhanusha in the east and Banke in the west. As compared to the criteria listed by Vaughan (1995), the climatic condition of Janakpur has been found more suitable which is as follows:
Rainfall             1917 mm/annum
Maximum temperature              36°C
Minimum Temperature              16.4°C
Frosting                                                Nil.

9.         Problems and constraints:
9.1       Scattered Production
            Most of the farms are substance type. Farmers are growing varieties of crops relatively in a small amount and on a small piece of land to support the family requirements. Specialized or commercial production of crops especially of the forage seed is lacking. Every farmers involved in berseem production grows some seed for their future use. Only the surplus seed is sold to the local market. It is observed that average farmers involved in berseem cultivation are growing berseem only in about 500-2000 sq m (1-4 kattha) of land and are producing only 3-15 kgs of berseem seed.

9.2       Seed quality
            Major problem to berseem seed production is the quality of seed. There is a lack of awareness towards the production of quality seed. Most of the seed, either produced at the government farm or at farmer’s level are of poor quality. Seeds of other varieties, Shaftal in particular, is found mixed with berseem seed in higher percentage. The berseem seed imported from India has also been reported to contain high percentage of weed seeds.

9.3       Competition between food and forage crops:
            Most of the farms are small in size and are growing food crops mainly for domestic consumption. Interruption or any change on traditional crop farming systems affects the existing food supply system. As berseem competes with Rabi season crop like wheat, most do not like to grow berseem especially in the crop land.

9.4       Training and skill:
            Since, seed production is highly specialized job; it needs skilled manpower for the production of quality seed. There is a lack of skilled manpower both at government as well as private levels. The government staff needs to be trained for the production of quality foundation seeds, plant breeding, processing, etc. whereas the farmers need to be trained for the production of grower seed, harvesting, processing, proper storage and quality control of the produced seed.

9.5       Lack of organized efforts for the promotion of berseem seed production
            There are no organized programmes for the production and distribution of berseem seed in the country. DOAD and other organizations involved in the production of fodder and pasture development activities are more concerned to promote production rather than marketing and distribution aspects of forage seed/planting materials.

9.6       Flow of berseem seed from neighboring country:
            A large quantity of berseem seed are imported from India especially from Sitamadhi, Bihar. The price of such berseem seed is much cheaper than locally grown seeds. It is estimated that about 800-1000 kgs of seed are brought from India by the local vendors and sold in the local weekly markets.

10.       Recommendations:
·        Immediate attention is needed to replace the existing seed stock available at government farms and register seed growers with a high quality breeder’s seed to maintain the varietal purity.
·        The seed production of berseem should be well organized through a full-fledged national level institute to look after production, processing, quality control and marketing mechanism of forage seeds including berseem.
·                                               Berseem producing (green fodder/seed) should be promoted as a potential source of income generation especially for the rural farmers. In this regard, in berseem seed producing districts, quality seed production should be given high priority whereas on the fodder producing districts priority should be given to produce green fodder for soiling, hay making, leaf meal production, etc. for all types of animal including ruminants, non-ruminants, avian and fishes.
·        Possibilities for the extension of berseem seed especially to the SAARC countries should be explored and a specialized quality seed grower’s farmers association should be formed for this purpose.
·        Government/nongovernment efforts should be directed towards the extensive use of fallow croplands for the production of fodder crops. E.g. berseem cultivation to solve the winter feed deficit and also to improve the fertility status of soil.
·        Farmers involved in forage seed production should be provided training/skills in quality seed production and their processing. Farmers of the seed producing districts should be facilitated with necessary equipments for seed processing and quality control.
·        Rules/regulations to control the quality of produced seed should be strictly amended by concerned organization.
Acknowledgement:
           The author is very much grateful to the Dairy Enterprise Support Component of Agro enterprise and technology Systems Project (ATSP) HMG, Nepal. USAID for the financial support to write this paper to present at this workshop.

REFERENCES
·        Livestock Development Project, 1986. Annual Report (2042/43-1985/86) HMG/Nepal.
·        Khatri, B. B. 1989.A study of Phosphatic fertilizer in leguminous forage crop Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexndrinum) at different level of P2O5 in Janakpur.
·        Second Livestock Development Project (ADB), Annual Report 2046/47. Department of Livestock services, Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur.
·        Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, 1991.     Annual Report (1990-91). Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankutta.
·                             Pande, RS 1994. Opportunities for fodder and pasture development and promising species in Nepal. II National Conference on science and Technology. RONAST, 8-11 June 1994, Kathmandu.
·        Pande, R.S. Shrestha, SK, Pradhan, SL,1993. Scope and opportunities for fodder and pasture Development and potential species in Nepal. Report on Fodder and Pasture Workshop, Annual Report - 1993 Pasture and Fodder Development Program, DLS, Lalitpur.
·        Pasture Trial and Seed Multiplication Farm, 2045/46. Annual Progress Report 2056/46 (1987/88). Pasture Trial and Seed Multiplication Farm, Janakpur, Nepal.
·        Pradhan, D.R. and Silwal K.N.1989. Study of Productivity of Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) and oats (Avena sativa) at different fertility level and management Systems. Nep. J An Sc vol 5, 1-7.
·        Vaughan A.M 1995. Introductory Notes, Pasture/Forage Production, Dairy Enterprise Support Components of Agro enterprise and Technology Systems Project. HMG/N, Nepal, USAID/Nepal.

Appendix-1. Map of Nepal and Berseem production Belt


Appendix-2.    Pasture and fodder Seed Production Target and Achievement of the Government Agencies
Organisation
Activities
Pasture Fodder Seed Production,


target
Achievement
Livestock Farm Solukhumbu
1. Pasture Seed Production
35
35
Livestock Farm, Jiri
1. Oat Seed Production,
2.Pasture Seed Production

1000
1000
Sheep Development farm, Nuwakot
1. Winter seed Production,
2. Pasture Seed Production
50
50
Sheep Production Farm, Chitlang
1. Winter seed Production,
2. Pasture Seed Production
300
267
Livestock Farm, Pokhara
1. Winter seed Production,
2. Summer Seed Production
12
5
Livestock Farm, Gaughat
1. Winter seed Production,
2. Summer Seed Production
500
500
Chauri Farm Dolpa
1. Pasture Seed Production
70
70
Goat farm Dhangadhi
1. Oat seed Production,
2. Pasture Seed Production
1500
2310
Pasture Trial and Seed Multiplication Farm, Janakpur
1. Berseem, Shaftal seed Production,
2. Teosinte seed Production
2000
2040
Livestock Feed Trial and Production Farm, Ranjitpur
1. oat vetch seed production,
2. Stylo, centro seed production,
3. Ipil-ipil, Tanki seed
300
900



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